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Posts Tagged ‘Media Utilization’

 


Social Network Learning Course Reflection

December 10th, 2012 Comments off

When I first enrolled in this course, I was very excited. I have been and am still very interested in bringing the power of social networking to education and the classroom. I had been looking at utilizing Facebook as a means of announcements, disseminating homework information, and as a student support network. Facebook and other social network sites have the power of being nearly universally known. Many current students already make use of these sites, so the overhead of teaching them how to use it is virtually non-existent.

I had a Twitter account coming into this class and a Diigo account.  I never used them though.  I thought them to be a waste of time.  And even most of the way through this course I didn’t feel that Diigo was much different than Scoop.it.  I’ve learned a lot about the power of Twitter, Scoop.it, and Diigo.  These tools, with Facebook are something that I will incorporate into any online course that I conduct and even into a regular classroom should I ever teach in one again.

Twitter is perfect for announcements and other types of quick information sharing and idea sharing. I had scorned Twitter.  The only reason that I even had an account was because of EDTECH 501.  It required it.  I like Twitter so much now and so excited about its potential that I have the app on my phone’s home screen.  I check it multiple times daily.

Curation is a topic and practice that I had always done, but never realized that I did.  I curated such a variety of topics from information on video game story lines to technical information on PHP scripting.  I collected links and even whole articles and stored them in folders on my hard drives.  My collections soon became unmanageable.  However with the wealth of curation tools including Diigo and Scoop.it, I’m excited to begin using them to help organize my mass of information hoarding.  I’m excited to teach others to use these tools as well.  I didn’t understand their worth at first but see it now.  I’ve practically fallen in love with Scoop.it.  Its only real drawback is its limitation on the number of topics you can have.

Now for the best part of this course and what I enjoyed the most – the MOOC.  I didn’t know that these existed.   I love this idea.  I’m a lifelong learner.  I learn to learn and I don’t care what it is as long as it interests me and stimulates my brain.  MOOCs are awesome and I can’t wait to delve more into this fascinating area and possible even conduct a few.  I’d really love to take part in the one that I designed and others that I saw my peers start and design. I may not make an entire course into a MOOC, but I definitely will add aspects of MOOCs into my courses.

This entire semester, I’ve enjoyed the various social networking tools that we’ve used and the information about digital footprints.  It’s been a great course and I’ve loved every minute of it.  Social media and networking have such powerful sharing and community building platforms already in place.  It’s silly that mainstream education has not fully harnessed their power yet, however I see improvement and the road heading that way.

 

 


The Coherence Principle

March 25th, 2012 Comments off

The coherence principle states simple that more is not always better.  Extra elements within an e-learning, distance learning, or presentation does not promote learning.  Extra elements can include words, sounds, images, video, or any other element that is included that does not directly contribute to the objective and content that is supposed to be learned.  For example, background music playing during narration or throughout the presentation can distract the learner and even overload their cognitive processing channels.  Clark and Mayer (2009) state “keep the lesson uncluttered…avoid adding any material that does not support the instructional goal”.  In the case of the coherence principle, studies suggest that extra information; even if it is interesting, detract from learning.  A boring lesson or presentation cannot be made interesting with irrelevant information.

The coherence principle shares a commonality with the other multimedia principles discussed so far in this course.  Those principles include the multimedia principle which states that information should be presented with relevant graphics rather than just words alone, the contiguity principle which requires graphics and other multimedia to be on the same screen or near the text that describes it, the modality principle that states that words should be presented as narration rather than on-screen text, and the redundancy principle that says not to present words as narration and on the screen.  The commonalities that these principles share are in the form of shared goals.  All of these principles have the goal of increasing student learning and decreasing the cognitive load on students.  The ultimate goal is to make the presentations and lessons more effective and less stressful for students to learn what they need to learn.  The coherence principle reminds me of what the author Anton Chekov once said.  He said that if you have a gun in the first act of the play, then it better go off by the end of the play.  Basically, he was talking about unneeded details and props in plays.  There is no need to overload the viewer or reader in the sense of a story with details that do not drive the story forward.  The same principle is expressed in the coherence principle.  Unneeded details lead to confusion and lower learning outcomes.

Cognitive overload can be a serious problem with many lessons and students.  I’ve seen many presentations both in schools and workplaces that have many pictures and music.  For me personally, it was hard to focus on the actual content of the presentation since I was trying to figure out the relationship between the graphics and the content.  I stopped paying attention to the facilitator and let my mind wander.  I’ve also sat through presentations that did not include graphics or sounds.  They were short and somewhat dull looking, but the information was imparted and I understood it on a deeper level.  This makes sense to me and is backed up by the psychology principles.  Students need clarity and singularity of purpose.  I’ve found that students can get overwhelmed easily and distracted easily.  It’s important to keep the information channels focused and clear.  They need to be singular in purpose and present the information that supports the instructional goal.  Students learn in two different channels and the coherence principle helps to keep those channels flowing with important and relevant information and keeps them uncluttered with useless, albeit interesting, information and graphics.

I really like the coherence principle.  It simplifies instructions.  Too many times, I have taken too much time trying to find graphics and images to make my slides look better.  I’ve never felt good about my presentations and now I know why.  Simpler is better.  It makes sense to me.

References

Clark, R. C., & Mayer, R. E. (2009). E-learning and the science of instruction, proven guidelines for consumers and designers of multimedia learning. Pfeiffer & Co.

 

Standards Addressed

S1 – Design – Candidates demonstrate the knowledge, skills, and dispositions to design conditions for learning by applying principles of instructional systems design, message design, instructional strategies, and learner characteristics.

  • 1.2 Message Design – Message design involves planning for the manipulation of the physical form of the message.

S3 – Utilization – Candidates demonstrate the knowledge, skills, and dispositions to use processes and resources for learning by applying principles and theories of media utilization, diffusion, implementation, and policy-making.

  • 3.1 Media Utilization – Media utilization is the systematic use of resources for learning.

 

 


Creating My Learning Log

February 5th, 2012 Comments off

This website (http://edtech.cominotti.net/llog) was created using free software from WordPress.  I chose to host the blogging software on my own web space in order to have more control over its layouts and to have direct access to the code to make customized modifications that would not be possible on a hosted site like wordpress.com.

The purpose of this site is to showcase my coursework, artifacts, and reflections created during my Master’s Degree program at Boise State University.  It’s a framework to display all of the projects and assignments that display my mastery and understanding go the AECT standards.

This learning log is a framework to display artifacts but it is also an artifact itself.  It is an example of work that demonstrates skills associated with AECT standard 2 dealing with development of materials and artifacts and more specifically sub-standard 2.3 the deals with the use of computer based technologies to create the materials and artifacts.

I used pre-written software and scripts to create this website, but I placed it within the framework of a larger website and modified the code to produce the effect you see now.  I used computers to create this artifact (the learning log).

 

S1 – Design – Candidates demonstrate the knowledge, skills, and dispositions to design conditions for learning by applying principles of instructional systems design, message design, instructional strategies, and learner characteristics.

  • 1.2 Message Design – Message design involves planning for the manipulation of the physical form of the message.

S2 – Development – Candidates demonstrate the knowledge, skills, and dispositions to develop instructional materials and experiences using print, audiovisual, computer-based, and integrated technologies.

  • 2.3 Computer Based Technologies – Computer-based technologies are ways to produce or deliver materials using microprocessor-based resources.

S3 – Utilization – Candidates demonstrate the knowledge, skills, and dispositions to use processes and resources for learning by applying principles and theories of media utilization, diffusion, implementation, and policy-making.

  • 3.1 Media Utilization – Media utilization is the systematic use of resources for learning.

 


Instructional Design Project – Citing Sources Correctly Using APA Style

December 28th, 2011 Comments off

This was, by far, the most intensive and thorough project to date that I completed in the EDTECH program.  I designed a whole unit using valid ID models.  I designed every aspect of this course and completed a Instructional Design Document detailing every phase of the project.

Instructional Design Project – Citing Sources Correctly Using APA Style


Standards Addressed

S1 – Design – Candidates demonstrate the knowledge, skills, and dispositions to design conditions for learning by applying principles of instructional systems design, message design, instructional strategies, and learner characteristics.

  • 1.1 Instructional Systems Design – Instructional Systems Design (ISD) is an organized procedure that includes the steps of analyzing, designing, developing, implementing, and evaluating instruction.
    • 1.1.1 Analyzing – Process of defining what is to be learned and the context in which it is to be learned.
    • 1.1.2 Designing – Process of specifying how it is to be learned.
    • 1.1.3 Developing – Process of authoring and producing the instructional materials.
    • 1.1.4 Implementing – Actually using the materials and strategies in context.
    • 1.1.5 Evaluating – Process of determining the adequacy of the instruction.
  • 1.3 Instructional Strategies – Instructional strategies are specifications for selecting and sequencing events and activities within a lesson.
  • 1.4 Learner Characteristics – Learner characteristics are those facets of the learner’s experiential background that impact the effectiveness of a learning process.

S2 – Development – Candidates demonstrate the knowledge, skills, and dispositions to develop instructional materials and experiences using print, audiovisual, computer-based, and integrated technologies.

  • 2.1 Print Technologies – Print technologies are ways to produce or deliver materials, such as books and static visual materials, primarily through mechanical or photographic printing processes.
  • 2.3 Computer Based Technologies – Computer-based technologies are ways to produce or deliver materials using microprocessor-based resources.

S3 – Utilization – Candidates demonstrate the knowledge, skills, and dispositions to use processes and resources for learning by applying principles and theories of media utilization, diffusion, implementation, and policy-making.

  • 3.1 Media Utilization – Media utilization is the systematic use of resources for learning.
  • 3.3 Implementation and Institutionalization – Implementation is using instructional materials or strategies in real (not simulated) settings. Institutionalization is the continuing, routine use of the instructional innovation in the structure and culture of an organization.

S5 – Evaluation – Candidates demonstrate knowledge, skills, and dispositions to evaluate the adequacy of instruction and learning by applying principles of problem analysis, criterion-referenced measurement, formative and summative evaluation, and long-range planning.

  • 5.1 Problem Analysis – Problem analysis involves determining the nature and parameters of the problem by using information-gathering and decision-making strategies.
  • 5.2 Criterion-referenced Measurement – Criterion-referenced measurement involves techniques for determining learner mastery of pre-specified content.
  • 5.3 Formative and Summative Evaluation – Formative evaluation involves gathering information on adequacy and using this information as a basis for further development. Summative evaluation involves gathering information on adequacy and using this information to make decisions about utilization.

 


ID Concept Map

December 1st, 2011 Comments off

ID_Concept_Map

I created a concept map based upon different Instructional Design Models.

ID Concept Map

I chose the Heinich, Molenda, Russell and Smaldino Model (ASSURE) because it is what I did for every unit and daily lesson while teaching. It is what I am more familiar with.

I chose the Newby, Stepich, Lehman and Russell Model because of its relation to ASSURE. They follow the same basic principles. This model is just a bit more simplified in labeling.

I chose the Smith and Ragan Model because I liked it. It is something that I want to implement more often during design and planning. It seems like a good model. With this model, the implementation phase present in the previous two models seems to be implied rather than expressed.

Finally, I chose the Dick, Carey, and Carey model due to its depth of coverage of what is needed to be done during design. I find it interesting that this model also seems to imply implementation as well.

Standards Addressed

S2 – Development – Candidates demonstrate the knowledge, skills, and dispositions to develop instructional materials and experiences using print, audiovisual, computer-based, and integrated technologies.

  • 2.3 Computer Based Technologies – Computer-based technologies are ways to produce or deliver materials using microprocessor-based resources.

S3 – Utilization – Candidates demonstrate the knowledge, skills, and dispositions to use processes and resources for learning by applying principles and theories of media utilization, diffusion, implementation, and policy-making.

  • 3.1 Media Utilization – Media utilization is the systematic use of resources for learning.

 

 


Instructional Design Case Study – Spring Wells High School

November 30th, 2011 Comments off

For this project, I read a case study about Spring Wells High School and responded to the following questions.

Suzanne Garner – Spring Wells High School Case Study

1.)  Describe the range of critical needs facing Spring Wells High School at this time.

Currently, Sprint Wells High School is facing some daunting and frustrating challenges.  They have one year left to bring 100% of their staff with a novice certification and 75% of their staff at practitioner certification.  They currently only have 75% of staff at novice practitioner certification and 40% at practitioner certification.  If they fail to achieve the goals, then their state technology funding will be forfeited.  For Suzanne Garner and teachers like Sandy Green, this is unacceptable.  Sandy Green uses computers nearly every day in her science classroom and has for the past 15 years.  Without the technology funding, maintenance and upgrades to the computer equipment cannot be performed.

Additionally, the school has been designated as “in emergency” for low test scores.  The school had two years to improve this status to “continuous improvement” by improving test scores.  The school is already in the second year and while test scores did rise by 6%, it was not enough to earn the designation “continuous improvement.”  If they fail to raise the designation the state will step in and decide on such matters as budget and educational changes.

The stakes are very high for Spring Wells High School.  They need to implement change in both areas to avoid losing funds and / or control of the budget and school.

2.)  Identify the available resources and existing constraints that apply in this case.

The school has many computers available to them to use in technology training as well as courses and programs designed to improve test scores.  For the past three years, Spring Wells has been receiving funding from the SchoolTech Equity Funding from the state.  The school has also been granted $20,000 to “improve teacher skills and knowledge in providing new environments for learning” from the Teacher Professional Development Grant Fund (Franklin).   Suzanne Gardner had, in previous years, offered after school workshops to get teachers and staff certified, however, many teachers did not attend stating that they were too busy to do it after school.

While the school has ample computers on hand, many teachers either do not know how to use them or include them in their classrooms, or they refuse to use them.  Teachers like Phil Nelson doesn’t believe in technology in the classroom and nearly refuses to participate in the workshops designed to bring him to at least novice certification.  Phil is probably not the only one with this mindset.

3.) Describe a plan for meeting the needs identified in question 1.

Basically, student test scores need to improve and teacher familiarity and certification rates with computers have to increase or the school will lose funding and control of budgets and educational decisions.  Both of these outcomes are not acceptable.

Some of the additional $20,000 in funding to provide some workshops those teachers could attend.  These workshops would be held during school hours and on an in-service day.  The workshops would be mandatory in this setting and teachers would be free from classroom work for the day in order to attend.  During the workshops, various activities could be implemented that show the potential for motivation that technology provides to students.   The workshops could also cover internet safety and resources for teachers to implement use of the internet in the classroom.

The workshops will be held at the beginning of the year so that teachers can implement technology into their lessons and units so that the benefits to the students can be maximized.

Some of the funding will be used to purchase a content filter service that will help to ensure that students are not only safe while online, but not viewing inappropriate content, or participating in activities that detract from the educational goals of the various lessons and activities.

Some of the funding will also be used to educate teachers and other staff that are responsible for the computers to maintain the machines that they control.  Proper maintenance is essential for error-free computing.

There is already a proficiency template in place to measure current classroom curriculum as it aligns with state standards.  The template is designed to identify areas and standards that are not being addressed.  Some funding should be used to teach teachers how to use this tool and why it is important.  Emphasis should be placed on the benefits of knowing what areas are lacking and what areas may be being covered too much.

With a more positive attitude towards technology, teachers will include it in their lessons, activities, and classroom more and more often which will lead to higher student motivation and interest.  If the students are interested more, then they will learn more and rising test scores should correlate with increased motivation and learning.

4.)  Specify the steps required for implementing the plan you developed in question 3, keeping in mind the resources and constraints present in the case.

A needs analysis has to be done to determine what types of workshops to offer. An assessment tool has to be developed to determine if the teachers and staff have achieved the desired proficiency.  This tool may already be in place with the novice / practitioner / expert certification guidelines.  Pre-assessments should be conducted and preliminary surveys as well so that Suzanne Gardner can properly design workshops that will be informative and motivating so that teachers will bring more technology into their classroom.  Each teacher should use the proficiency template to determine the areas that their curriculum needs improvement or new content and adjust accordingly by implementing technological tools and computers into the lessons.  A needs assessment should be conducted to determine current levels of technological expertise in order to develop guides and procedures for regular computer maintenance.  With the addition of all of these factors, student achievement and test scores should rise.  An assessment of student skill levels should be conducted as well and the post assessment should be administered regularly possibly in the form of MAPS testing or something like it three times yearly.  This gives teachers the ability to determine if what they are doing is helping and what students or areas need more work.

5.)  What are the ethical issues related to the use of funding for assessment and curriculum alignment when the grant was originally written for technology professional development?  

The money was granted to the school to use for professional teacher development in the areas of technology.  While, I can understand the desire to use the funding to help raise test scores, it is not ethical and, depending on the grant, could result in losing further grant monies but possibly needing to repay the current grant.

It is also worth noting that if teacher’s certification rates are not improved, other monies from the state could be lost.

It is clear.  The grant money should be used as it was intended for—to provide professional development opportunities for teachers in the field of technology.  If the money is properly used for this purpose, school test scores will rise as a result.  Now, there is nothing saying that that the money and programs funded by the grant money cannot be used quickly.

 

Standards Addressed

S2 – Development – Candidates demonstrate the knowledge, skills, and dispositions to develop instructional materials and experiences using print, audiovisual, computer-based, and integrated technologies.

  • 2.3 Computer Based Technologies – Computer-based technologies are ways to produce or deliver materials using microprocessor-based resources.

S3 – Utilization – Candidates demonstrate the knowledge, skills, and dispositions to use processes and resources for learning by applying principles and theories of media utilization, diffusion, implementation, and policy-making.

  • 3.1 Media Utilization – Media utilization is the systematic use of resources for learning.

 


Reading Quiz

November 29th, 2011 Comments off

This was a fun assignment in which I had to demonstrate my understanding of the readings with a presentation that used my creativity to explain the concepts in my own words.  I used Google Slides to Create the presentation and then saved it into PDF format.

Reading Quiz

Standards Addressed

S2 – Development – Candidates demonstrate the knowledge, skills, and dispositions to develop instructional materials and experiences using print, audiovisual, computer-based, and integrated technologies.

  • 2.1 Print Technologies – Print technologies are ways to produce or deliver materials, such as books and static visual materials, primarily through mechanical or photographic printing processes.
  • 2.3 Computer Based Technologies – Computer-based technologies are ways to produce or deliver materials using microprocessor-based resources

S3 – Utilization – Candidates demonstrate the knowledge, skills, and dispositions to use processes and resources for learning by applying principles and theories of media utilization, diffusion, implementation, and policy-making.

  • 3.1 Media Utilization – Media utilization is the systematic use of resources for learning.

 


Instructional Design Job Description

November 28th, 2011 Comments off

I created a fictitious job posting in the instructional design field.  I used other ID job postings to formulate and design my fictitious one.  I also answered some questions about the difference between teachers / instructors and instructional designers.

The posting has been published to the web.

ID Job Description

Standards Addressed

S2 – Development – Candidates demonstrate the knowledge, skills, and dispositions to develop instructional materials and experiences using print, audiovisual, computer-based, and integrated technologies.

  • 2.3 Computer Based Technologies – Computer-based technologies are ways to produce or deliver materials using microprocessor-based resources

S3 – Utilization – Candidates demonstrate the knowledge, skills, and dispositions to use processes and resources for learning by applying principles and theories of media utilization, diffusion, implementation, and policy-making.

  • 3.1 Media Utilization – Media utilization is the systematic use of resources for learning.

S4 -Management – Candidates demonstrate knowledge, skills, and dispositions to plan, organize, coordinate, and supervise instructional technology by applying principles of project, resource, delivery system, and information management.

  • 4.1 – Project Management – Project management involves planning, monitoring, and controlling instructional design and development projects.