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Instructional Design Project – Citing Sources Correctly Using APA Style

December 28th, 2011 Comments off

This was, by far, the most intensive and thorough project to date that I completed in the EDTECH program.  I designed a whole unit using valid ID models.  I designed every aspect of this course and completed a Instructional Design Document detailing every phase of the project.

Instructional Design Project – Citing Sources Correctly Using APA Style


Standards Addressed

S1 – Design – Candidates demonstrate the knowledge, skills, and dispositions to design conditions for learning by applying principles of instructional systems design, message design, instructional strategies, and learner characteristics.

  • 1.1 Instructional Systems Design – Instructional Systems Design (ISD) is an organized procedure that includes the steps of analyzing, designing, developing, implementing, and evaluating instruction.
    • 1.1.1 Analyzing – Process of defining what is to be learned and the context in which it is to be learned.
    • 1.1.2 Designing – Process of specifying how it is to be learned.
    • 1.1.3 Developing – Process of authoring and producing the instructional materials.
    • 1.1.4 Implementing – Actually using the materials and strategies in context.
    • 1.1.5 Evaluating – Process of determining the adequacy of the instruction.
  • 1.3 Instructional Strategies – Instructional strategies are specifications for selecting and sequencing events and activities within a lesson.
  • 1.4 Learner Characteristics – Learner characteristics are those facets of the learner’s experiential background that impact the effectiveness of a learning process.

S2 – Development – Candidates demonstrate the knowledge, skills, and dispositions to develop instructional materials and experiences using print, audiovisual, computer-based, and integrated technologies.

  • 2.1 Print Technologies – Print technologies are ways to produce or deliver materials, such as books and static visual materials, primarily through mechanical or photographic printing processes.
  • 2.3 Computer Based Technologies – Computer-based technologies are ways to produce or deliver materials using microprocessor-based resources.

S3 – Utilization – Candidates demonstrate the knowledge, skills, and dispositions to use processes and resources for learning by applying principles and theories of media utilization, diffusion, implementation, and policy-making.

  • 3.1 Media Utilization – Media utilization is the systematic use of resources for learning.
  • 3.3 Implementation and Institutionalization – Implementation is using instructional materials or strategies in real (not simulated) settings. Institutionalization is the continuing, routine use of the instructional innovation in the structure and culture of an organization.

S5 – Evaluation – Candidates demonstrate knowledge, skills, and dispositions to evaluate the adequacy of instruction and learning by applying principles of problem analysis, criterion-referenced measurement, formative and summative evaluation, and long-range planning.

  • 5.1 Problem Analysis – Problem analysis involves determining the nature and parameters of the problem by using information-gathering and decision-making strategies.
  • 5.2 Criterion-referenced Measurement – Criterion-referenced measurement involves techniques for determining learner mastery of pre-specified content.
  • 5.3 Formative and Summative Evaluation – Formative evaluation involves gathering information on adequacy and using this information as a basis for further development. Summative evaluation involves gathering information on adequacy and using this information to make decisions about utilization.

 


ID Concept Map

December 1st, 2011 Comments off

ID_Concept_Map

I created a concept map based upon different Instructional Design Models.

ID Concept Map

I chose the Heinich, Molenda, Russell and Smaldino Model (ASSURE) because it is what I did for every unit and daily lesson while teaching. It is what I am more familiar with.

I chose the Newby, Stepich, Lehman and Russell Model because of its relation to ASSURE. They follow the same basic principles. This model is just a bit more simplified in labeling.

I chose the Smith and Ragan Model because I liked it. It is something that I want to implement more often during design and planning. It seems like a good model. With this model, the implementation phase present in the previous two models seems to be implied rather than expressed.

Finally, I chose the Dick, Carey, and Carey model due to its depth of coverage of what is needed to be done during design. I find it interesting that this model also seems to imply implementation as well.

Standards Addressed

S2 – Development – Candidates demonstrate the knowledge, skills, and dispositions to develop instructional materials and experiences using print, audiovisual, computer-based, and integrated technologies.

  • 2.3 Computer Based Technologies – Computer-based technologies are ways to produce or deliver materials using microprocessor-based resources.

S3 – Utilization – Candidates demonstrate the knowledge, skills, and dispositions to use processes and resources for learning by applying principles and theories of media utilization, diffusion, implementation, and policy-making.

  • 3.1 Media Utilization – Media utilization is the systematic use of resources for learning.

 

 


Instructional Design Case Study – Spring Wells High School

November 30th, 2011 Comments off

For this project, I read a case study about Spring Wells High School and responded to the following questions.

Suzanne Garner – Spring Wells High School Case Study

1.)  Describe the range of critical needs facing Spring Wells High School at this time.

Currently, Sprint Wells High School is facing some daunting and frustrating challenges.  They have one year left to bring 100% of their staff with a novice certification and 75% of their staff at practitioner certification.  They currently only have 75% of staff at novice practitioner certification and 40% at practitioner certification.  If they fail to achieve the goals, then their state technology funding will be forfeited.  For Suzanne Garner and teachers like Sandy Green, this is unacceptable.  Sandy Green uses computers nearly every day in her science classroom and has for the past 15 years.  Without the technology funding, maintenance and upgrades to the computer equipment cannot be performed.

Additionally, the school has been designated as “in emergency” for low test scores.  The school had two years to improve this status to “continuous improvement” by improving test scores.  The school is already in the second year and while test scores did rise by 6%, it was not enough to earn the designation “continuous improvement.”  If they fail to raise the designation the state will step in and decide on such matters as budget and educational changes.

The stakes are very high for Spring Wells High School.  They need to implement change in both areas to avoid losing funds and / or control of the budget and school.

2.)  Identify the available resources and existing constraints that apply in this case.

The school has many computers available to them to use in technology training as well as courses and programs designed to improve test scores.  For the past three years, Spring Wells has been receiving funding from the SchoolTech Equity Funding from the state.  The school has also been granted $20,000 to “improve teacher skills and knowledge in providing new environments for learning” from the Teacher Professional Development Grant Fund (Franklin).   Suzanne Gardner had, in previous years, offered after school workshops to get teachers and staff certified, however, many teachers did not attend stating that they were too busy to do it after school.

While the school has ample computers on hand, many teachers either do not know how to use them or include them in their classrooms, or they refuse to use them.  Teachers like Phil Nelson doesn’t believe in technology in the classroom and nearly refuses to participate in the workshops designed to bring him to at least novice certification.  Phil is probably not the only one with this mindset.

3.) Describe a plan for meeting the needs identified in question 1.

Basically, student test scores need to improve and teacher familiarity and certification rates with computers have to increase or the school will lose funding and control of budgets and educational decisions.  Both of these outcomes are not acceptable.

Some of the additional $20,000 in funding to provide some workshops those teachers could attend.  These workshops would be held during school hours and on an in-service day.  The workshops would be mandatory in this setting and teachers would be free from classroom work for the day in order to attend.  During the workshops, various activities could be implemented that show the potential for motivation that technology provides to students.   The workshops could also cover internet safety and resources for teachers to implement use of the internet in the classroom.

The workshops will be held at the beginning of the year so that teachers can implement technology into their lessons and units so that the benefits to the students can be maximized.

Some of the funding will be used to purchase a content filter service that will help to ensure that students are not only safe while online, but not viewing inappropriate content, or participating in activities that detract from the educational goals of the various lessons and activities.

Some of the funding will also be used to educate teachers and other staff that are responsible for the computers to maintain the machines that they control.  Proper maintenance is essential for error-free computing.

There is already a proficiency template in place to measure current classroom curriculum as it aligns with state standards.  The template is designed to identify areas and standards that are not being addressed.  Some funding should be used to teach teachers how to use this tool and why it is important.  Emphasis should be placed on the benefits of knowing what areas are lacking and what areas may be being covered too much.

With a more positive attitude towards technology, teachers will include it in their lessons, activities, and classroom more and more often which will lead to higher student motivation and interest.  If the students are interested more, then they will learn more and rising test scores should correlate with increased motivation and learning.

4.)  Specify the steps required for implementing the plan you developed in question 3, keeping in mind the resources and constraints present in the case.

A needs analysis has to be done to determine what types of workshops to offer. An assessment tool has to be developed to determine if the teachers and staff have achieved the desired proficiency.  This tool may already be in place with the novice / practitioner / expert certification guidelines.  Pre-assessments should be conducted and preliminary surveys as well so that Suzanne Gardner can properly design workshops that will be informative and motivating so that teachers will bring more technology into their classroom.  Each teacher should use the proficiency template to determine the areas that their curriculum needs improvement or new content and adjust accordingly by implementing technological tools and computers into the lessons.  A needs assessment should be conducted to determine current levels of technological expertise in order to develop guides and procedures for regular computer maintenance.  With the addition of all of these factors, student achievement and test scores should rise.  An assessment of student skill levels should be conducted as well and the post assessment should be administered regularly possibly in the form of MAPS testing or something like it three times yearly.  This gives teachers the ability to determine if what they are doing is helping and what students or areas need more work.

5.)  What are the ethical issues related to the use of funding for assessment and curriculum alignment when the grant was originally written for technology professional development?  

The money was granted to the school to use for professional teacher development in the areas of technology.  While, I can understand the desire to use the funding to help raise test scores, it is not ethical and, depending on the grant, could result in losing further grant monies but possibly needing to repay the current grant.

It is also worth noting that if teacher’s certification rates are not improved, other monies from the state could be lost.

It is clear.  The grant money should be used as it was intended for—to provide professional development opportunities for teachers in the field of technology.  If the money is properly used for this purpose, school test scores will rise as a result.  Now, there is nothing saying that that the money and programs funded by the grant money cannot be used quickly.

 

Standards Addressed

S2 – Development – Candidates demonstrate the knowledge, skills, and dispositions to develop instructional materials and experiences using print, audiovisual, computer-based, and integrated technologies.

  • 2.3 Computer Based Technologies – Computer-based technologies are ways to produce or deliver materials using microprocessor-based resources.

S3 – Utilization – Candidates demonstrate the knowledge, skills, and dispositions to use processes and resources for learning by applying principles and theories of media utilization, diffusion, implementation, and policy-making.

  • 3.1 Media Utilization – Media utilization is the systematic use of resources for learning.

 


Module 7 Reflection

November 29th, 2011 Comments off

This module was interesting.  In the past, I’ve always thought of evaluation and assessment as synonymous.  When I first started the module, I had thought that assessment would be driving my work for this module.  I see the importance of evaluation.  It’s like beta testing the instruction.  It doesn’t matter how carefully it is designed, it will still have flaws and items to be improved.  Also, nothing is ever perfect and can always stand to be evaluated, reevaluated, and improved upon.

 


Reading Quiz

November 29th, 2011 Comments off

This was a fun assignment in which I had to demonstrate my understanding of the readings with a presentation that used my creativity to explain the concepts in my own words.  I used Google Slides to Create the presentation and then saved it into PDF format.

Reading Quiz

Standards Addressed

S2 – Development – Candidates demonstrate the knowledge, skills, and dispositions to develop instructional materials and experiences using print, audiovisual, computer-based, and integrated technologies.

  • 2.1 Print Technologies – Print technologies are ways to produce or deliver materials, such as books and static visual materials, primarily through mechanical or photographic printing processes.
  • 2.3 Computer Based Technologies – Computer-based technologies are ways to produce or deliver materials using microprocessor-based resources

S3 – Utilization – Candidates demonstrate the knowledge, skills, and dispositions to use processes and resources for learning by applying principles and theories of media utilization, diffusion, implementation, and policy-making.

  • 3.1 Media Utilization – Media utilization is the systematic use of resources for learning.

 


Instructional Design Job Description

November 28th, 2011 Comments off

I created a fictitious job posting in the instructional design field.  I used other ID job postings to formulate and design my fictitious one.  I also answered some questions about the difference between teachers / instructors and instructional designers.

The posting has been published to the web.

ID Job Description

Standards Addressed

S2 – Development – Candidates demonstrate the knowledge, skills, and dispositions to develop instructional materials and experiences using print, audiovisual, computer-based, and integrated technologies.

  • 2.3 Computer Based Technologies – Computer-based technologies are ways to produce or deliver materials using microprocessor-based resources

S3 – Utilization – Candidates demonstrate the knowledge, skills, and dispositions to use processes and resources for learning by applying principles and theories of media utilization, diffusion, implementation, and policy-making.

  • 3.1 Media Utilization – Media utilization is the systematic use of resources for learning.

S4 -Management – Candidates demonstrate knowledge, skills, and dispositions to plan, organize, coordinate, and supervise instructional technology by applying principles of project, resource, delivery system, and information management.

  • 4.1 – Project Management – Project management involves planning, monitoring, and controlling instructional design and development projects.

 


Module 6 Reflection

November 15th, 2011 Comments off

This module was a bit tough for me.  I really had to examine my methods and plans for delivering this unit and adjust some things as necessary to provide a more logical flow as well as increased motivation.  I also want to make this unit flexible and independent of the method of delivery.  I want instructors to be able to deliver this to both in-classroom students as well online students.  I had thought to convert it to an asynchronous delivery method for online, but that might require more time  to complete, but the total instruction / practice time should be 2.5 – 3 hours.  We’ll see.  I need to clear up some of my steps and refine some of my activities.  My goals is for students to have the knowledge of where to find the knowledge so to speak.  I don’t want them to memorize the rules, but know where to find them since APA style changes so often.  By giving students this ability, it also opens them up to use a different style like MLA or Chicago very easily.  Since the information that is needed to make the citation is nearly identical across styles, students should have no problem transition from one style to another.  At least, that is my hope.

 


Module 4 Reflection

October 19th, 2011 Comments off

After reading my colleagues responses to my assessment matrix, I will make some changes, but I will leave the core on its own. There are no evaluation level test items that are explicit, but there is some implicit evaluation in the sense that students are required to evaluate an entry or citation for correctness to APA style. I might add some more objectives so that students can evaluate the actual style of a paragraph that includes citations, but that might be outside the scope of the project. I will have to consider it. I do plan on leaving many of the objectives and assessments in place since I feel that they accurately measure the students’ abilities, understanding, and knowledge. The goal of my project is for students to understand why we cite material, when it is necessary to cite material, and what information to gather to properly cite material. The actual style that the citation uses is not that important. It is the understanding of citation—the why’s of it—that is the true goal here. It is easier to include citations if a proper understanding is achieved.

 


Module 3 Reflection (Learning Task Analysis)

October 5th, 2011 Comments off

Writing sentences and paragraphs that accurately and correctly cite a source quotation is a process that I am very familiar with.  It was more challenging to break the task down into its constituent components.   I tried to make each step as simple as possible.  Maybe I’m a bit biased but as an English teacher with a background in creative writing, I feel that writing style is essential for a good piece of writing.  Varied methods of introducing an in-text citation make the paper more interesting to read and keep the reader’s attention much longer.

I realize that there are two components to proper citation, but for this assignment, I tried to focus on just one of those and give it a very thorough analysis.  My learning objectives, though, did include objectives from both learning tasks.  I felt that it is essential that the two tasks be linked in the student’s mind so that a student will gather the required information when making the citation to include a bibliographical representation.  As such, the objectives should be linked as well.

Having taught in the classroom, I realize that not all learners will have the same skill set and be at the same level as far as the prerequisites are concerned.  I plan on including some differentiation in the delivery of the activities to allow for all students to understand the need for citation, the appropriate times to cite and the basic information to gather regardless of style.  I think that these are the skills that I want my students to come of my project with.  They are the most important.  They are also the concepts that students have the hardest time with.

 


Reflection Module 2: ID Project Needs Assessment, Learning Environment, and Learner Description

September 19th, 2011 Comments off

After reading some of the feedback, I have some more questions and things to think about when it comes to designing my ID project.

I want to ask teachers what treads they see in student achievement.  Basically, I want them to identify what areas that they notice that students seem to struggle with the most.  This will give a bit of a starting point and an area to focus on when it comes to the actual instruction.

I hadn’t thought about it before, but it is true.  Teachers tend to be biased.  If a student does not understand, then the natural assumption is that the issue lies with the student.  It is difficult for teachers, me included, to recognize and take responsibility for the issue.  I might use teacher descriptions of aptitudes to be general rather than specific and only really use it to gauge a range of my learners.

My goal with this project is not to teach students everything to know about citation.  There is, by far, too much information to retain.  The important aspects of my project will be on identifying when to cite, how to introduce the material into the paragraph both grammatically and structurally, and where to look for the proper way to do it.  These are the keys to citation.  I still consult my references, the OWL at Purdue, being a frequent one as well as citation machine.  My goal is to provide them with a skill—knowing when to cite.  The particular rules and styles are not that much of a concern, however, knowing where to look to make sure that the rules are followed is a concern.